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Included publications

  • Abdel-Motelib, A., Bode, M., Hartmann, R., Hartung, U., Hauptmann, A., and Pfeiffer, K., 2012, Archaeometallurgical expeditions to the Sinai Peninsula and the Eastern Desert of Egypt (2006, 2008), Metalla, 19(½), 3–59.

  • Aleksandrov, M., 1992, Metalogenetske karakteristike polimetaličnog rudnog polja Sase, Istočna Makedonija, PhD thesis, Goce Delčev University, Štip.

  • Amov, B. G., 1999, Lead isotope data for ore deposits from Bulgaria and the possibility for their use in archaeometry, Berliner Beiträge zur Archäometrie, 16, 5–19.

  • Amov, B., Bogdanov, B., and Baldjieva, T., 1974, Lead isotope composition and some features concerning the genesis and the age of the ore deposits in south Bulgaria, 4th IAGOD Symposium, Varna, Bulgaria.

  • Amov, B., Breskovska, B., Baldzhieva, C. T., Evstatieva, S. S., and Mankov, S., 1983, O результатах масс-спектрального анализа свинца свинцо-во-цинковъх месторождений Звездельского рудного поля \[On the results of mass spectral analysis of the lead-zinc deposits of the Zvezdel ore field\], Godine na BMGI, C, 29(2), 79–90.

  • Amov, B., Kolkovski, B., and Dimitrov, R., 1993, Генезис и възраст на хидротермални рудни минерализации в родопската металогенна зона въз основа на изотопния състав на оловото в галенит  \[Genesis and age of hydrothermal ore mineralization in the Rhodope metallogenic zone on the basis of the isotopic composition of lead in galena\], Annuaire de l’Université de Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridski” Faculté de Géologie et Géographie, 85, 73–98.

  • Andráš, P., Chovan, M., Dirner, V., and Krá, J., 2010, Pb-Isotope Study in Sb-Mineralisation from Western Carpathian (Slovakia), Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 5(2), 71–80.

  • Asael, D., Matthews, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Harlavan, Y., and Segal, I., 2012, Tracking redox controls and sources of sedimentary mineralization using copper and lead isotopes, Chemical Geology, 310–311, 23–35 DOI:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.03.021

  • Barnes, I. L., Shields, W. R., Murphy, T. J., and Brill, R. H., 1974, Isotopic analyses of Laurion lead ores, In Archaeological Chemistry (ed. C. W. Beck), 1–10, Advances in Chemistry Series 138, Washington D.C. DOI:10.1021/ba-1974-0138.ch001

  • Baron, S., Tămaş, C. G., Cauuet, B., and Munoz, M., 2011, Lead isotope analyses of gold–silver ores from Roşia Montană (Romania): a first step of a metal provenance study of Roman mining activity in Alburnus Maior (Roman Dacia), Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(5), 1090–100. DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2010.12.004

  • Begemann, F., and Schmitt-Strecker, S., 2009, Über das frühe Kupfer Mesopotamiens, Iranica Antiqua, 44, 1–45. DOI:10.2143/IA.44.0.2034374

  • Begemann, F., Hauptmann, A., Schmitt-Strecker, S., and Weisgerber, G., 2010, Lead isotope and chemical signature of copper from Oman and its occurrence in Mesopotamia and sites on the Arabian Gulf coast, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 21(2), 135–69. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0471.2010.00327.x

  • Begemann, F., Schmitt-Strecker, S., Pernicka, E., and Lo Schiavo, F., 2001, Chemical composition and lead isotopy of copper and bronze from Nuragic Sardinia, European Journal of Archaeology, 4, 43–85. DOI:10.1179/eja.2001.4.1.43

  • Bird, G., Brewer, P. A., Macklin, M. G., Nikolova, M., Kotsev, T., Mollov, M., and Swain, C., 2010, Pb isotope evidence for contaminant-metal dispersal in an international river system: The lower Danube catchment, Eastern Europe, Applied Geochemistry, 25(7), 1070–84. DOI:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2010.04.012

  • Boni, M., and Koeppel, V., 1985, Ore-lead isotope pattern from the Iglesiente-Sulcis Area (SW Sardinia) and the problem of remobilization of metals, Mineralium Deposita, 20(3), 185–93. DOI:10.1007/BF00204563

  • Brill, R. H., 1970, Lead and Oxygen Isotopes in Ancient Objects, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 269(1193), 143–64. DOI:10.1098/rsta.1970.0093

  • Brill, R. H., Barnes, I. L., and Adams, B., 1974, Lead Isotopes in Some Ancient Egyptian Objects, In Recent Advances in Science and Technology of Materials (ed. A. Bishay), Vol. 3, 9–27, Plenum, New York.

  • Calvez, J. Y., and Lescuyer, J. L., 1991, Lead Isotope Geochemistry of Various Sulphide Deposits from the Oman Mountains, In Ophiolite Genesis and Evolution of the Oceanic Lithosphere (eds. Tj. Peters, A. Nicolas, and R. G. Coleman), Vol. 5, 385–97, Petrology and Structural Geology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. DOI:10.1007/978-94-011-3358-6_19

  • Caron, C., Lancelot, J., Omenetto, P., and Orgeval, J. J., 1997, Role of the Sardic tectonic phase in the metallogenesis of SW Sardinia (Iglesiente): lead isotope evidence, European Journal of Mineralogy, 9(5), 1005–16. DOI:10.1127/ejm/9/5/1005

  • Chalkias, S., and Vavelidis, M., 1989, Interpretation of lead-isotope data from Greek Pb-Zn deposits, based on an empirical two-stage model, Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, 23(2), 177–93.

  • Chalkias, S., Vavelidis, M., Schmitt-Strecker, S., and Begemann, F., 1988, Geologische Interpretation der Blei-Isotopenverhältnisse von Erzen der Insel Thasos, der Ägäis und Nordgriechenlands, In Antike Edel- und Buntmetallgewinnung auf Thasos, 59–74, Der Anschnitt Beiheft 6, Bochum.

  • Chamberlain, V. E., and Gale, N. H., 1980, The Isotopic Composition of lead in Greek coins and in Galena from Greece and Turkey, In Proc. 16th Inst. Symp. on Archeometry and Archaeological Prospection, Edinburgh 1976, 139–55, the Proceedings, National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh.

  • Chegini, N., Momenzadeh, M., Parzinger, H., Pernicka, E., Stoellner, T., Vatandoust, R., Weisgerber, G., Boroffka, N., Chaichi, A., Hasanalian, D., Hezarkhani, Z., Eskandari, M., and Nezafati, N., 2000, Preliminary report on archaeometallurgical investigations around the prehistoric site of Arisman near Kashan, western Central Iran, Archaologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan, 32, 281–318.

  • Chen, J. H., and Pallister, J. S., 1981, Lead Isotopic Studies of the Samail Ophiolite, Oman, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B4), 2699–708. DOI:10.1029/JB086iB04p02699

  • Cook, N. J., and Chiaradia, M., 1997, Sources of base metal mineralization in the Baia Borsa orefield, NW Romania: constraints from lead isotopes, In Mineral deposits (ed. H. Papunen), 813–6, Balkema, Rotterdam.

  • Dayton, J. E., and Dayton, A. M., 1986, Uses and limitations of lead isotopes in archaeology, In Proceedings of the 24th International Archaeometry Symposium (eds. J. S. Olin, and M. J. Blackman), 13–41, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

  • De Launay, M. L., 1894, Les Minerais d’Argent de Milo, Annales des Mines, 9ième Série(VI), 345–53.

  • Deleon, G., 1968, Primena metoda nuklearne geologije u odredivanju apsolutne starosti stena na teritoriji SR Makedonije, PhD thesis, University of Belgrade, Belgrade.

  • Doe, B. R., and Rohrbough, R., 1977, Lead isotope data bank: 3,459 samples and analyses cited, Open-File Report. DOI:10.3133/ofr79661

  • Durali-Müller, S., 2006, Roman lead and copper mining in Germany : their origin and development through time, deduced from lead and copper isotope provenance studies, Geowissenschaften, Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt a.M., Germany.

  • Ehya, F., Lotfi, M., and Rasa, I., 2010, Emarat carbonate-hosted Zn–Pb deposit, Markazi Province, Iran: A geological, mineralogical and isotopic (S, Pb) study, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 37(2), 186–94. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2009.08.007

  • evidence from combined Pb-Sr and stable isotope data, Economic Geology, 90(4), 746–62.

  • Frei, R., 1992, Isotope (Pb, Rb-Sr, S, O, C, U-Pb) geochemical investigations on Tertiary intrusives and related mineralizations in the Serbomacedonian Pb-Zn, Sb+Cu-Mo metallogenetic province in Northern Greece, PhD thesis, ETH Zürich, Zürich. DOI:10.3929/ethz-a-000692261

  • Frei, R., 1995, Evolution of mineralizing fluid in the porphyry copper system of the Skouries Deposit, Northeast Chalkidiki (Greece) DOI:10.2113/gsecongeo.90.4.746

  • Gale, N. H., 1978, Lead Isotopes and Aegean Metallurgy, In Thera and the Aegean world I. Papers presented at the Second International Scientific Congress, Santorini, Greece, August, 1978 (ed. C. Doumas), 529–45, London.

  • Gale, N. H., 1979, Lead Isotopes and Archaic Silver Coins, Archeo-Physika, 10, 194–208.

  • Gale, N. H., 1980, Some aspects of lead and silver mining in the Aegean, In Thera and the Aegean World II. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Congress, Santorini, Greece, August 1978 (ed. C. Doumas), 161–95, Aris and Phillips Ltd., London.

  • Gale, N. H., 1998, The Role of Kea in Metal Production and Trade in the LBA, In Kea-Kythnos: History and Archaeology. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Kea-Kythnos, 22-25 June 1994 (eds. L. G. Mendoni, and A. J. Mazarakis), Vol. 27, 737–58, Meletemata, Athen.

  • Gale, N. H., and Stos-Gale, Z. A., 1981, Cycladic Lead and Silver Metallurgy, The Annual of the British School at Athens, 76, 169–224. DOI:10.1017/S0068245400019523

  • Gale, N. H., and Stos-Gale, Z. A., 1981, Cycladic Lead and Silver Metallurgy, The Annual of the British School at Athens, 76, 169–224. DOI:

  • Gale, N. H., and Stos-Gale, Z. A., 1985, Cyprus and the Bronze Age Metals Trade, In Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Cypriot Studies, Nicosia 1982 (eds. T. Papadopoullos, and S. A. Chatzēstyllēs), 51–66, Society of Cypriot Studies, Nicosia.

  • Gale, N. H., and Stos-Gale, Z. A., 1986, Oxhide Copper Ingots in Crete and Cyprus and the Bronze Age Metals Trade, The Annual of the British School at Athens, 81, 81–100. DOI:10.1017/S0068245400020098

  • Gale, N. H., and Stos-Gale, Z. A., 1987, Oxhide ingots from Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus and the Bronze Age copper trade: New scientific evidence, In Nuragic Sardinia and the Mycenaean world, Studies in Sardinian archaeology 3 (ed. M. Balmuth), Vol. 387, 135–78, BAR International Series, Bar, Oxford.

  • Gale, N. H., and Stos-Gale, Z. A., 1988, Recent evidence for a possible Bronze Age metal trade between Sardinia and the Aegean, In Problems in Greek Prehistory, Proceedings of the Centenary Conference of the British School of Archaeology at Athens, Manchester 1986 (eds. E. B. French, and K. A. Wardle), 355–85, Bristol Classical Press, Bristol.

  • Gale, N. H., Gentner, W., and Wagner, G. A., 1980, Mineralogical and Geographical Silver Sources of Archaic Greek Coinage, In Metallurgy in Numismatics (eds. D. M. Metcalf, and W. A. Oddy), Vol. 1, 3–49, Special publication Royal Numismatic Society, London.

  • Gale, N. H., Picard, O., and Barrandon, J. N., 1988, The Archaic Thasian silver coinage, In Antike Edel- und Buntmetallgewinnung auf Thasos (eds. G. A. Wagner, and G. Weisgerber), Vol. 6, 212–23, Der Anschnitt Beiheft, Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum, Bochum.

  • Gale, N. H., Stos-Gale, Z. A., Lilov, P., Dimitrov, M., and Todorov, T., 1991, Recent Studies of Eneolithic Copper Ores and Artefacts in Bulgaria, In Decouverte du Metal (eds. J. Mohen, and C. Eluere), Vol. 2, 49–75, Millénaires, Picard, Paris.

  • Gale, N. H., Stos-Gale, Z. A., Papastamataki, A., and Leonis, K., 1985, Copper Sources and Copper Metallurgy in the Aegean Bronze Age, In Furnaces and smelting technology in antiquity. Proceedings of the Symposium on Early Furnace Technology, British Museum, London 1982 (eds. P. T. Craddock, and M. J. Hughes), Vol. 48, 81–102, British Museum Occasional Paper, British Museum, London.

  • Harlavan, Y., Bar-Matthews, M., Matthews, A., Asael, D., and Segal, I., 2017, Tracing the sources of sedimentary Cu and Mn ores in the Cambrian Timna Formation, Israel using Pb and Sr isotopes, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 178, 67–82. DOI:10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.03.016

  • Hauptmann, A., Begemann, F., and Schmitt-Strecker, S., 1999, Copper Objects from Arad: Their Composition and Provenance, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 314, 1–17. DOI:10.2307/1357449

  • Hauptmann, A., Begemann, F., Heitkemper, E., Pernicka, E., and Schmitt-Strecker, S., 1992, Early Copper Produced at Feinan, Wadi Arabah, Jordan: The Composition of Ores and Copper, Archeomaterials, 6, 1–33.

  • IGME Xanthi cit. in: Frei, R., 1992, Isotope (Pb, Rb-Sr, S, O, C, U-Pb) geochemical investigations on Tertiary intrusives and related mineralizations in the Serbomacedonian Pb-Zn, Sb+Cu-Mo metallogenetic province in Northern Greece, PhD thesis, ETH Zürich, Zürich.

  • Janković, S., 1978, Изотопни састав олова у појединим терцијарним олово-цинковим српско-македонске металогенетске провинције \[The isotopic composition of lead in some tertiary lead-zinc deposits within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province (Yugoslavia)\], Geoloski Anali Balkanskog Poluostrva, 42, 507–25.

  • Jović, B., 1983, Godišnji izveštaji o izvršenim geološkim istraživanjima Pb-Zn u rudnom polju Blagodat, FSD Republičkog društvenog fond za geol. istr., Belgrade.

  • Kalogeropoulos, S. I., Kilias, S. P., Bitzios, D. C., Nicolaou, M., and Both, R. A., 1989, Genesis of the Olympias carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn (Au, Ag) sulfide ore deposit, eastern Chalkidiki Peninsula, northern Greece, Economic Geology, 84(5), 1210–34. DOI:10.2113/gsecongeo.84.5.1210

  • Köppel, V., and Schroll, E., 1985, Herkunft des Pb der triassischen Pb-Zn-Vererzungen in den Ost-und Südalpen: Resultate bleiisotopengeochemischer Untersuchungen, Archiv für Lagerstättenforschung der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 6, 215–22.

  • Kouzmanov, K., Moritz, R., Von Quadt, A., Chiaradia, M., Peytcheva, I., Fontignie, D., Ramboz, C., and Bogdanov, K., 2009, Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au association in the Southern Panagyurishte district, Bulgaria: the paired Vlaykov Vruh and Elshitsa deposits, Mineralium Deposita, 44, 611–46. DOI:10.1007/s00126-009-0239-1

  • Kubat, I., Ramović, E., Tomčević, D., Pezdić, J., and Dolenac, T., 1979, The results of the investigation of S, O, C and Pb isotopic composition in some ore deposits and occurrences in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Geološki Glasnik, 24/25, 61–84.

  • Ludwig, K. R., Vollmer, R., Turi, B., Simmons, K. R., and Perna, G., 1989, Isotopic constraints on the genesis of base-metal ores in southern and central Sardinia, European Journal of Mineralogy, 1, 657–66. DOI:10.1127/ejm/1/5/0657

  • Marchev, P., and Moritz, R., 2006, Isotopic composition of Sr and Pb in the Central Rhodopean ore fields: Inferences for the genesis of the base-metal deposits, Geologica Balcanica, 35(3–4), 49–61.

  • Marcoux, E., Grancea, L., Lupulescu, M., and Milesi, J., 2002, Lead isotope signatures of epithermal and porphyry-type ore deposits from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains, Mineralium Deposita, 37(2), 173–184. DOI:10.1007/s00126-001-0223-x

  • Marschik, R., Bauer, T., Hensler, A.-S., Skarpelis, N., and Hölzl, S., 2010, Isotope Geochemistry of the Pb-Zn-Ba(-Ag-Au) Mineralization at Triades-Galana, Milos Island, Greece: Triades-Galana Pb-Zn-Ba Mineralization, Resource Geology, 60(4), 335–47. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-3928.2010.00139.x

  • Mirnejad, H., Simonetti, A., and Molasalehi, F., 2011, Pb isotopic compositions of some Zn–Pb deposits and occurrences from Urumieh–Dokhtar and Sanandaj–Sirjan zones in Iran, Ore Geology Reviews, 39(4), 181–7. DOI:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2011.02.002

  • Mirnejad, H., Simonetti, A., and Molasalehi, F., 2015, Origin and formational history of some Pb-Zn deposits from Alborz and Central Iran: Pb isotope constraints, International Geology Review, 57(4), 463–71. DOI:10.1080/00206814.2015.1013510

  • Molasalehi, F., and Mirnejad, H., 2010, Comparing Pb isotopic composition of Kuhe Surmeh deposit with some of the Pb-Zn deposits from Central Iran and evaluating the role of Neo-Tethys in Pb remobilization in Central Iran, Journal of Science, 36(1), 11–7.

  • Mudrinic, C., and Serafimovski, T., 1992, Lead, sulphur, oxygen and carbon isotopes in the Zletovo ore field (Eastern Macedonia), Geologica Balcanica, 24(3), 39–48.

  • Nebel, M. L., Hutchinson, R., and Zartman, R. E., 1991, Metamorphism and polygenesis of the Madem Lakkos polymetallic sulfide deposit, Chalkidiki, Greece, Economic Geology, 86(1), 81–105. DOI:10.2113/gsecongeo.86.1.81

  • Nezafati, N., Pernicka, E., and Momenzadeh, M., 2009, Introduction of the Deh Hosein ancient tin-copper mine, Western Iran: Evidence from Geology, Archaeology, Geochemistry and Lead Isotope Data, Turkish Academy of Sciences Journal of Archaeology (TUBA-AR), 12, 223–36. DOI:10.22520/tubaar.2009.0018

  • Nezafati, N., Pernicka, E., and Momenzadeh, M., 2011, Early Tin-Copper Ore from Iran, a possible Clue for the Enigma of Bronze Age Tin, In Anatolian Metal V (ed. Ü. Yalçin), Vol. 24, 211–30, Der Anschnitt, Beiheft, Bochum.

  • OXALID: Oxford Archaeological Lead Isotope Database from the Isotrace Laboratory (

  • Pajović, M., Ćepić, M., Manojlović, M., Dubak, M., and Svrkota, R., 1982, Opšte geološke i metalogenetske karakteristike Pb-Zn mineralizacije u Crnoj Gori, In Zbornik radova: X. jubilarnog kongresa geologa Jugoslavije (eds. S. Cicmil, and Jubilarni kongres geologa Jugoslavije), 247–69, Organizacioni odbor X jubilarnog kongresa geologa Jugoslavije, Budva.

  • Palinkaš, L. A., 1985, Lead isotope patterns in galenas from some selected ore deposits in Croatia and NW Bosnia, Geološki Vjesnik, 38, 175–89.

  • Pernicka, E., Begemann, F., Schmitt-Strecker, S., and Wagner, G., 1993, Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age copper artefacts from the Balkans and their relation to Serbian copper ores, Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 68, 1–54. DOI:10.1515/prhz.1993.68.1.1

  • Pernicka, E., Begemann, F., Schmitt-Strecker, S., Todorova, H., and Kuleff, I., 1997, Prehistoric copper in Bulgaria: its composition and provenance, Eurasia Antiqua(3), 41–180.

  • Pernicka, E., Momenzadeh, M., Vatandoust, A., Adam, K., Böhme, M., Hezarkhani, Z., Nezafati, N., Schreiner, M., and Winterholler, B., 2011, Archaeometallurgical research on the Western Central Iranian Plateau, In Early Mining and Metallurgy on the Western Central Iranian Plateau (eds. A. Vatandoust, H. Parzinger, and B. Helwing), 633–87, Eurasien-Abteilung des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Außenstelle Teheran, Philipp von Zabern, Mainz.

  • Pfeiffer, K., 2013, Neue Untersuchungen zur Archäometallurgie des Sinai: die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Innovation “Kupfermetallurgie,” Menschen - Kulturen - Traditionen ForschungsCluster 2, Innovation: technisch, sozial 11, Leidorf, Rahden, Westf.

  • Shafiei, B., 2010, Lead isotope signatures of the igneous rocks and porphyry copper deposits from the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc (SE Iran), and their magmatic-metallogenetic implications, Ore Geology Reviews, 38(1–2), 27–36. DOI:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2010.05.004

  • Shahabpour, J., and Kramers, J. D., 1987, Lead isotope data from the Sar-Cheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran, Mineralium Deposita, 22(4), 278–281. DOI:10.1007/BF00204520

  • Siron, C. R., 2018, Magmatic, Structural, and Metallogenic Framework of the Kassandra Mining District, Chalkidiki Peninsula, Northern Greece, PhD thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca.

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., 1989, Cycladic Copper Metallurgy, In Old world archaeometallurgy: proceedings of the International symposium Old world archaeometallurgy. Heidelberg 1987 (eds. A. Hauptmann, E. Pernicka, and G. A. Wagner), Vol. 7, 279–93, Der Anschnitt, Beiheft, Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, Bochum.

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., 2001, The impact of the natural sciences on studies of hacksilber and early silver coinage, In Hacksilber to coinage: new insights into the monetary history of the Near East and Greece. A collection of eight papers presented at the 99th Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America (eds. M. S. Balmuth, Archaeological Institute of America, and American Numismatic Society), 53–76, Numismatic studies 24, American Numismatic Society, New York.

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., and Gale, N. H., 1981, Sources of galena, lead and silver in predynastic Egypt, Revue d’Archéometrie, Supplement (Actes du XXe symposium international d’archéométrie Paris 26-29 mars 1980 Volume III), 285–96. DOI:10.3406/arsci.1981.1158

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., and Gale, N. H., 1985, Metal Sources and the Metal Trade in the Bronze Age Aegean - The Isotopic Evidence. Mycenaean Seminar, 20 February, Institute of Archaeology, London, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, 32, 157-158.

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., and Gale, N. H., 1992, New light on the provenance of the copper oxhide ingots found on Sardinia., In Sardinia in the Mediterranean: A footprint in the sea (eds. R. H. Tykot, T. K. Andrews, and M. Balmuth), Vol. 3, 317–45, Monographs in Mediterranean archaeology, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield.

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., Gale, N. H., and Annetts, N., 1996, Lead Isotope Data from the Isotrace Laboratory, Oxford: Archaeometry Data Base 3, Ores from the Aegean, Part 1, Archaeometry, 38(2), 381–90. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.1996.tb00784.x

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., Gale, N. H., and Zwicker, U., 1986, The copper trade in the south east Mediterranean region: preliminary scientific evidence, Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, 122–44.

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., Gale, N. H., Houghton, J., and Speakman, R., 1995, Lead isotope data from the Isotrace Laboratory, Oxford: Archaeometry data base 1, Ores from the Western Mediterranean, Archaeometry, 37(2), 407–15. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.1995.tb00753.x

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., Kayafa, M., and Gale, N. H., 1999, The origin of metals from the bronze age site of Nichoria, Opuscula Atheniensia, 24, 99–120.

  • Stos-Gale, Z. A., Maliotis, G., Gale, N. H., and Annetts, N., 1997, Lead isotope characteristics of the Cyprus copper ore deposits applied to provenance studies of copper oxhide ingots, Archaeometry, 39(1), 83–123. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.1997.tb00792.x

  • Swainbank, I. G., Shepherd, T. J., Caboi, R., and Massoli-Novelli, R., 1982, Lead isotopic composition of some galena ores from Sardinia, Periodico di Mineralogia, 51, 275–86.

  • Tombros, S. F., Kokkalas, S., Seymour, K. St., Voudouris, P. C., Williams-Jones, A. E., Zhai, D., Liu, J., and Fitros, M. G., 2021, The Kallianos Au-Ag-Te mineralization, Evia Island, Greece: a detachment-related distal hydrothermal deposit of the Attico-Cycladic Metallogenetic Massif, Mineralium Deposita, 56(4), 665–84. DOI:10.1007/s00126-020-00989-3

  • Triantafyllidis, S., Tombros, S. F., Zhai, D., and Kokkalas, S., 2021, The upper Cretaceous Ermioni VMS deposit, Argolis Peninsula, Peloponnese, Greece: Type, genesis, and geotectonic setting, Ore Geology Reviews, 138, 104403. DOI:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104403

  • Valera, R. G., Valera, P. G., and Rivoldini, A., 2005, Sardinian ore deposits and metals in the Bronze Age, In Archaeometallurgy in Sardinia: From the origins to the beginning of the Early Iron Age (eds. F. Lo Schiavo, A. Giumlia-Mair, U. Sanna, and R. Valera), Vol. 30, 43–88, Monographies instrumentum, Éditions Monique Mergoil, Montagnac.

  • Vavelidis, M., Bassiakos, I., Begemann, F., Patriarcheas, K., Pernicka, E., Schmitt-Strecker, S., and Wagner, G. A., 1985, Geologie und Erzvorkommen, In Silber, Blei und Gold auf Sifnos. Prähistorische und antike Metallproduktion (eds. G. A. Wagner, G. Weisgerber, and W. Kroker), Vol. 3, 59–80, Der Anschnitt, Beiheft, Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum, Bochum.

  • Velojic, M., Prelevic, D., and Jelenkovic, R., 2018, The origin of lead and sulphur in Tulare ore field, Lece magmatic complex, Se Serbia, Geoloski anali Balkanskoga poluostrva, 79(2), 19-28. DOI:10.2298/GABP1802019V

  • Veselinović-Williams, M., 2011, Characteristics and origin of polymetallic mineralisation in the Kopaonik region of Serbia and Kosovo, with particular reference to the Belo Brdo Pb-Zn (Ag) deposit, PhD thesis, Kingston University, London.

  • Wagner, G. A., Pernicka, E., Seeliger, T. C., Ötzunali, Ö., Baranyi, I., Begemann, F., and Schmitt-Strecker, S., 1985, Geologische Untersuchungen zur frühen Metallurgie in NW- Anatolien., Bull. of the Mineral Res. and Exploration Inst. of Turkey, 101/102, 45–81.

  • Wagner, G. A., Pernicka, E., Vavelidis, M., Baranyi, I., and Bassiakos, I., 1986, Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen auf Chalkidiki, Der Anschnitt, 38(5–6), 166–86.

  • Westner, K. J., 2017, Roman mining and metal production near the antique city of ULPIANA (Kosovo), PhD thesis, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt.

  • Wind, S. C., Schneider, D. A., Hannington, M. D., and McFarlane, C. R. M., 2020, Regional similarities in lead isotopes and trace elements in galena of the Cyclades Mineral District, Greece with implications for the underlying basement, Lithos, 366–367, 105559. DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2020.105559

Interface of the app

The interface of the app consists of five parts:

  1. The menu, which can be shown/hidden with the button 1a
  2. The header with two options to control the app’s appearance: Toggle full screen mode (2a) and toggle light/dark mode (2b)
  3. Different filter for the database, which can be shown/hidden (3a) and unpinned/pinned (3b)
  4. The footer
  5. The work area. All windows here can be collapsed and also maximised. If maximised, their content will be scaled accordingly.

Filter the database

A wide range of options are provided to filter the database. The elements in the header (1 to 4) can be used to adjust some general settings and the elements in the filter area (5 to 13) allow to select data according to specific criteria.

  1. The database to be used. Currently, only “Ores & minerals” are supported but it is planned to provide additional datasets in the future
  2. Whether the whole dataset or only reliable data should be used. The reliability of the data is based solely on the analytical method and excludes all analyses pre-1974 (no mass bias correction) and analyses not measured with a TIMS or MC-ICP-MS (too imprecise). By default, this option is active.
  3. If only data with exact locations should be used or not. Sometimes, the location or site where the sample was taken cannot be reconstructed. In these cases, coordinates of the next smallest reliably determinable geographical or administrative entity are recorded.
  4. Whether “unknowns” should be excluded or not. Similar to the location, e.g. the mining site is not always reported. This option is only working on the current subsetting variable. Consequently, switching this variable (e.g. to the country) can change the number of displayed data points. Activating this option will also prevent the appearance of a legend item “unknown” in the plots.
  5. Select only data located in the specified modern country.
  6. Select only data located in the specified modern political provinces of the selected countries. They appear in the order of the selected countries.
  7. Select only data located in the specified mining regions in the selected countries. They appear in the order of the selected countries.
  8. Select only data from specific sites located within the modern political provinces or mining regions.
  9. Restrict the selection to samples from deposits that were formed in the selected geological epochs/ages.
  10. Restrict the selection to minerals that are contained in the ore (brackets around a mineral indicate that this is only a subordinate phase of the ore).
  11. Restrict the selection to metals that can be (theoretically) produced from the ores (brackets around an element indicate that only minor amounts of this metal could be produced). This does not necessarily mean that all metals given here were also extracted from the ore, and the produced metal(s) may be subject to changes over time.
  12. Restrict the instrument(s) used to produce the data.
  13. Restrict the selection to publications of a certain range of year, e.g. all publications after 2000.

How the filter work:

  • Click on the items in the list to select multiple ones. In the dropdown lists, you can remove them from the filter by clicking on an item (it changes the colour) and pressing DELETE.
  • Changing a filter on a higher level (e.g. country) will reset all filter on the lower levels (e.g. mining area). This holds also true for switching between reliable data and the full data set.
  • All items within the same filter are OR connected, i.e. picking galena and chalcopyrite as minerals will yield all data that contain galena OR chalcopyrite (or both) beside other mineral phases.
  • Area above the horizontal line (5 to 8)
    • You must pick one or multiple countries.
    • Based on the picked countries, the respective provinces and mining areas become available. Provinces and mining areas are OR connected (e.g. picking Italy and Egypt as countries and then Sardinia as province and the Eastern Desert as mining area will show all data from Sardinia and the Eastern Desert).
    • Based on the chosen provinces and mining areas, the mining sites become available narrow the selection further if desired.
  • Area below the horizontal line (9 to 13):
    • Changing filters above the horizontal line will reset the filters below the horizontal line.
    • These filters will be applied on the selection obtained from the filters 5 to 8. If no items are picked, the entire database will be filtered to display e.g. all copper ores or all ores containing galena.
    • All filters in this area are connected by AND conditions. For example, picking Cu as commodity and MC-ICP-MS as instrument will yield only copper ores measured by MC-ICP-MS.
  • The menu “Upload” provides an auto-match function for uploaded data. See the respective chapter for further details.


The selected data (and any uploaded data) are displayed in the map and in the preview plots in the same colours. The plots are static and intended for preview only. You can modify these elements with the following options:

  1. This is the category according to which the data will be subset. It is the same like for the plots (see next chapter).
  2. You can choose between three predefined axis-combinations for the preview.
  3. You can jump to a specific location by providing the respective coordinates as decimal degrees and pressing the “Go!” button.
  4. You can choose between different maps (including satellite images) and show/hide the reference data (and the uploaded data).

Clicking on points with a number in the map will centre the map on the area of the previously collapsed points. Hovering with the mouse over a point in the map gives some basic information to the respective data. Please do not get confused: Points with numbers are colour-coded according to the number of points they are containing. Colours according to the subsetting variable are only applied to individual points.


On this page you can explore the data more closely and customise the plots before downloading them for publication. It consists of two independent plots. Only two options are the same for both plot: the subsetting variable (1a) and the colour palette (1b).

Depending on the number of the selected variables (2), certain kinds of plots (“styles”) can be chosen (3). Transparency and size (point size or line width in millimetres) can be set for all plots in the column “Design” (4). Specific options for each kind of plot are provided in the second column if available (5, see below).

Plots are provided in an interactive view (6a) and as a preview of the print version, i.e. the one you can download (6b). There are two exceptions: 3D scatter plots can only be viewed interactively and not downloaded. If really necessary, a snapshot can be made with the small camera icon from the toolbar in the upper right corner of the plot. 2D density plots are not available in the interactive plots.

In the interactive scatter plots (styles “Point” and “2D scatter”), specific data can be selected via the “Box select” or the “Lasso” tool in the upper right corner of the respective plot (7). A table with the selected data will be displayed in the “data table tab” (8) for closer inspection. An explanation for most of the icons in this toolbar can be found here and we encourage you do play around with them.

The plot designs

  • X-axis (Y-axis is set to “none”):
    • Density (filled)
      • A one dimensional kernel density estimate.
      • Option “Arrangement of groups”: separate - all groups are overlapping each other; stacked - all groups on top of each other; stacked & normalised - all groups on top of each other and scaled to 1.
    • Histogram and Frequency polygon (filled)
      • Histograms (“bars”) or polygons (“lines”) with the number of observations within a certain interval (bin).
      • Option “Arrangement of groups”: separate - all groups are overlapping each other; stacked - all groups on top of each other; stacked & normalised - all groups on top of each other and scaled to 1.
      • Option “Binwidth”: The width of the intervals that the data are counted in, provided as the number of intervals the x-axis should be separated into. This value must always be adjusted to the respective selection of the data for an optimal display of the data’S distribution.
    • Boxplot:
      • Please read here for how to interprete a boxplot.
  • X & Y- axis (Z-axis is net to “none”):
    • Point
      • A scatter plot.
    • Density 2D
      • A two-dimensional kernel density estimate.
      • Option “Number of quantiles”: The number of quantiles at which contours should be drawn. The default 4 will draw contours at quartiles, i.e. at probabilities of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%.
      • Option “Smallest displayed quantile”: The smallest quantile that is drawn. The default 0.02 draws the 2% quantile contour. This gives a fairly accurate outline while excluding single separate points.
      • Option “filled polygons”: If ticked, the contours will be filled.
      • Transparency aff